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Cassava in Vietnam

Cassava's huge potential as 21st Century crop

FOODCROPS.  Save and Grow, an environmentally-friendly farming model promoted by FAO, can sustainably increase cassava yields by up to 400 percent and help turn this staple from a poor people's food into a 21st Century crop (FAO, 2013). The approach has yielded spectacular results in trials organized in Viet Nam, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 tonnes to 36 tonnes  -- an increase of more than 400 percent. KM140 variety and KM419 variety have yielded spectacular results in trials and cassava production in Vietnam (Hoang Kim, 2013).

Cassava's huge potential as 21st Century crop

28 May 2013, Rome - Save and Grow, an environmentally-friendly farming model promoted by FAO, can sustainably increase cassava yields by up to 400 percent and help turn this staple from a poor people's food into a 21st Century crop,  FAO said today.

In a newly-published field guide detailing Save and Grow's applications to cassava smallholder production, FAO noted that global cassava output has increased by 60 percent since 2000 and is set to accelerate further over the current decade as policymakers recognize its huge potential.

But using the inputs-intensive approach pioneered during last century's  Green Revolution to boost cassava production risks causing further damage to the natural resource base and increasing the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for climate change.

The solution, says FAO, lies in the Save and Grow approach which achieves higher yields with improved soil health rather than with the heavy use of chemical inputs.  Save and Grow minimizes soil disturbance caused by conventional tillage such as ploughing, and recommends maintaining a protective cover of vegetation over soil.

Instead of the monocropping normally seen in intensive farming systems, Save and Grow encourages mixed cropping and crops rotation, and predicates integrated pest management, which uses disease-free planting material and pests' natural enemies to keep harmful insects down,  instead of chemical pesticides.

Spectacular results

The approach has yielded spectacular results in trials organized in Viet Nam, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 tonnes to 36 tonnes  -- an increase of more than 400 percent.

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, through training in the use of healthy planting materials, mulching and intercropping,  farmers attending field schools achieved yield increases of up to 250 percent.

In Colombia, rotating cassava with beans and sorghum restored yields where mineral fertilizer alone had failed.

Cassava is a highly versatile crop grown by smallholders in more than 100 countries. Its roots are rich in carbohydrates while its tender leaves contain up to 25 percent protein, plus iron, calcium and vitamins A and C.  Other parts of the plant can be used as animal feed, and livestock raised on cassava have good disease resistance and low mortality rates.

One reason driving increased demand for cassava is the current high level of cereal prices. This makes it an attractive alternative to wheat and maize, particularly as cassava can be processed into a high-quality flour than can partially substitute for wheat flour.  

Food security

But, together with its importance as a source of food and food security, cassava also has a range of industrial uses that give it huge potential to spur rural industrial development and raise rural incomes.

Cassava is second only to maize as a source of starch and recently-developed varieties produce root starch that will be highly sought after by industries.
Demand for cassava as a feedstock for the manufacture of bioethanol is also growing rapidly.

Another important consideration is that of the major staple crops in Africa, hardy, resilient cassava is expected to be the least affected by advancing climate change. 

With Save and Grow developing countries can thus avoid the risks of unsustainable intensification while realizing cassava's potential for producing higher yields, alleviating hunger and rural poverty and contributing to national economic development.

FOODCROPS. CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC

45th Anniversary of CIAT: Welcome from Vietnam

FOODCROPS. 10 September 2012 in Hanoi, Vietnam, the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) celebrates 45 years of research for development aimed at benefiting smallholder farmers and poor consumers across the tropical world. At the same time, the Center marks three decades of innovative research for market‐oriented agricultural development in Southeast Asia, among them including Vietnam.  Welcome from Vietnam by Vice Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Dr. Bui Ba Bong ... 

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45th Anniversary of the Founding of CIAT:  Welcome from Vietnam
Dr. Bui Ba Bong, Vice Minister
of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Vietnam

Speech at the 45th Anniversary of the Founding of
the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIAT

His Excellency Mr. Borrowman, the Ambassador of Australia to Vietnam, ,
Dr. Wanda Collins, Chair of the Board of Trustees of CIAT,
Dr. Ruben Echeverria, Director General of CIAT,
Distinguished delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen.

On behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development I would like to welcome all visitors to Viet Nam and say it is my pleasure to join you for the 45th anniversary of theInternational Center for Tropical Agriculture, or CIAT. I would like to congratulate CIAT on reaching this important milestone.

Agriculture remains a very important sector for Viet Nam. Approximately 70% of the population are involved in agriculture and it produces more than 20% of economic output. Viet Nam is a major exporter of many agricultural products, and in some cases the top or one of the top exporters globally, with a total agricultural export value of 25 billions USD annually. In the cassava sector, with a harvesting area of more than half million hectares, the export value of cassava products of Vietnam reaches 800-950 million USD per year. In this connection, CIAT has made a significant contribution through improving the cassava sector of Viet Nam.

CIAT has been working in Viet Nam for more than twenty years with agencies within the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and with the university sector. There have been three main areas of collaboration.

The first started with the testing and release of improved animal forage germplasm and management techniques. This has produced significant improvements in animal production and in the livelihoods of tens of thousands of smallholder farming families, especially in the upland areas. These impacts have been seen for livestock sectors ranging from cattle through to fish.

The second major area of impact has been with cassava. In the time CIAT has worked with Vietnamese partners on improvement of cassava, both the area cultivated and the average yield of cassava have more than doubled, resulting in a more than four-fold increase in production and a huge increase in both processing and exports. Impacts have been realized at many levels; at the national level as cassava has become a major export product, and for the lives of hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of smallholder families throughout the country through changes in productivity and profitability. Germplasm from the CIAT cassava
breeding program is now included in more than 90% of all cassava grown in Viet Nam.

The third area of collaborative work with CIAT has been in linking farmers to markets, especially farmers from reasonably remote areas of the country in Thua Thien Hue, Hoa Binh, and Dak Lak Provinces. Through addressing a combination of technical and marketing problems improvements in market access, profit, and livelihoods were observed for many communities for a wide range of products, including cassava and livestock, but also fruits, vegetables, and more.

I understand that these three major areas of work have been supported by donor organisations represented in this room, namely the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, the Nippon Foundation, AusAID, ACIAR, and IFAD. We are very grateful for their support, and I know CIAT is grateful as well.

Many challenges remain for farmers in Viet Nam and there is an important role for agricultural sciences in addressing these challenges. The research and extension capacity within the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, as well as in the universities and other sectors of the country, must rise to the challenges faced by agriculture. This will involve working with farmers, extension services, and the commercial sectors with a focus on improving livelihoods while maintaining the resources of the country and responding to changes in markets and to climate change. Working with international centers, such as CIAT, and with other national research organizations across the region, is important. There are many problems that can be more efficiently solved and broadly adopted only through international collaboration.

Once again I would like to congratulate CIAT on this important 45th anniversary and we look forward to many years working together in the future. Using thís opportunisty, I would like to thank CIAT and its scientist for their effective support to Vietnam Agriculture.

Finally, I would like to congratulate Ruben Echeverria, CIAT Director General, Dr. Rod Lefroy, CIAT Regional Director for Asia and Dr. Keith Farhney, Project Director of CIAT who have been awarded the Medal for the Cause of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development. It is with great honour that I hand over these medals to them in this ceremony.

Thank you.

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FOODCROPS. CASSAVA IN VIETNAM

Cassava and Vietnam – Now and Then

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Cassava and Vietnam – Now and Then

by Prof. Dr. Kazuo Kawano (Japan)

READINESS FOR WORKING WITH FARMERS

One thing outstanding in our collaboration with the Vietnamese colleagues is their acute readiness for working closely with farmers. This is in good contrast to my Latin American experience.


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Cassava field near Hanoi, circa 1995. Loan, a farm wife, KK and Ho.

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 Hearing from farmers in Hatay in 1996. KK and Mr. Chien, Deputy Director of Root Crop Research Center, VASI.

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Loan leading a town meeting in Hatay in 1996.


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 Ngoan presiding a village meeting in Pho Yen in 1996.

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 Harvest of a field trial in Bac Thai in 1996; a curious mixture of Ngoan (Professor to be), students, farmers, an old woman and a baby.

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 Reunion at Mr. Kien’s house in Pho Yen 13 years later.

 Strangely absent from my photo collection is Hoang Kim. Kim is the undisputed champion of associating with fellow researchers from other institutions, farmers from many provinces. Kim initiated the invitation of advanced farmers to the selection field at Hung Loc Center so as to evaluate and select their own favorites; a harbinger to the later much celebrated “farmer participatory research.

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Here in 2009 in Dong Nai and Tay Ninh cassava field, Kim is mixing with advanced farmers, students, extension staff and officials.

SUCCESSFUL FARMER

More....

Source: http://cassavaviet.blogspot.com/2010/05/cassava-and-vietnam-now-and-then-6-9.html

FOODCROPS. CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC

Cassava in Vietnam: a successful story

FOOD CROPS: Cassava in Vietnam is among the four most important food crops. Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers. In 2008, cassava fresh root production in Vietnam was about 9.39 million tones, up from only 1.99 million tones in 2000 and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2008. Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new cultivar propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors, of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties more than 420,000 ha, mainly KM94, KM140, KM98-5, KM98-1, SM937-26, KM98-7 varieties, and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. Cassava in Vietnam: a successful story

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CURRENT SITUATION OF CASSAVA IN VIETNAM AND ITS POTENTIAL AS A BIOFUEL

Cassava in Vietnam is among the four most important food crops. Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers. In 2008, cassava fresh root production in Vietnam was about 9.39 million tones, up from only 1.99 million tones in 2000 and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2008.

There are now 60 cassava processing factories in operation with a total processing capacity of 3.2 - 4.8 million tones of fresh roots/year. Total cassava starch production in Vietnam was about 0.8 -1.2 million tones, of which 70% was exported and 30% used domestically.

Vietnam has developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 100 to 150 million liters per year. Petrovietnam plans to build three tapioca-based ethanol plants in the northern (Phu Tho), central (Quang Ngai) and southern Vietnam (Binh Phuoc). Each costing $80 million which will use cassava as feedstock, is expected to open in 18 months with total annual capacity of 300 million liters per year. The first and second of which is already under construction in Phu Tho and Quang Ngai. The third plant will begin in Binh Phuoc in March next year and is due to be completed at the end of 2011.

Vietnam is now probably the second largest exporter of cassava products (chip and starch), after Thailand. Major markets of Vietnam’s cassava exports are China and Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea and countries in Eastern Europe. Besides, animal feed factories also contributed significantly to the increasing demand for cassava roots. Although in Vietnam cassava processing is a relatively new business and export volumes are still low, the cassava processing factories are new and modern. That is why Vietnam’s cassava products may have a competitive advantage in the world market.

CASSAVA BREEDING AND VARIETAL ADOPTION IN VIETNAM
Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new cultivar propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors, of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties in about 420,000 ha, mainly KM94, KM140, KM98-5, KM98-1, SM937-26, KM98-7 varieties, and the adoption of more sustainable production practices.

Since 2001-2007, a total of 24,073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37,210 seeds from 9-15 cross combinations made in Vietnam, 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand), and 31 local farmers’ varieties, have been planted. Of these, 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process, and one of the most promising, KM140, has recently been released in 2007.

CASSAVA IN VIETNAM A SUCCESSFUEL STORY

Initial Contacts

In September 1988, Dr. Kazuo Kawano (CIAT cassava breeder) and Dr. Reinhardt Howeler (agronomist), both working at the CIAT Cassava Office for Asia in Bangkok, visited Institute of Agricultural Science for Southern Vietnam (IAS) in Ho Chi Minh city. They discussed with Dr. Tran The Thong, Director, Dr. Mai Van Quyen, Deputy Director of IAS, and Mr. Hoang Kim (Director of Hung Loc Agricultural Research Center belong to IAS), possible future collaboration. They also visited Hung Loc Center and cassava growing areas in Dong Nai and Tay Ninh provinces.

In May 1989, Dr. Kawano and Howeler visited IAS in HCM city again as well as the Department. of International Cooperation of the Ministry of Agriculture in Hanoi. They discussed with Mr. Nguyen Ich Chuong possible cooperation between CIAT and various Vietnamese institutions. They also visited the Food Crops Research Center in Hai Hung (up to now in Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Science – VAAS) and some cassava growing areas in Chi Linh district. During a subsequent visit in Octorber 1989, Mr. Nguyen Ich Chuong requested CIAT to coordinate a comprehensive national survey on cassava production and usage. Cassava breeding and agronomy trials in collaboration with CIAT were initiated in Hung Loc Center in 1989 and in Thai Nguyen University in 1990.

Cassava Survey
The cassava production, processing and marketing survey was conducted in 45 districts of 20 provinces from 1990 to 1992, in collaboration with VASI, Thai Nguyen University., IAS and Nong Lam University. A total of 1,117 households were interviewed. This culminated in a Workshop, held in Hanoi from Octorber 29-31, 1992. The Proceedings of this Workshop with all the survey data was published by CIAT in 1996.

Cassava Breeding and Varietal Improvement
Before CIAT collaboration was initiated in 1988, a total of 24 local cassava varieties had been collected and evaluated at Hung Loc Center. In year 1987, three cassava varieties HL20, HL23 and HL24 were selected from local cassava collections and released by HARC and they were grown in about 70,000 ha in South Vietnam. In 1989, 16 Thai varieties and promising lines were introduced in the form of stem cuttings. These were evaluated in Hung Loc Center starting in 1989, in Thai Nguyen Univ. in 1990 and in VASI in 1991. In addition, large numbers of sexual seeds were introduced yearly from Thailand and Colombia. From 1989 to 2008 a total of 139,598 seeds were introduced by CIAT. These were germinated by Vietnamese cassava breeders and the resulting plants were evaluated through many cycles of selection.

During the period of 1993-2008, nine new cassava varieties, namely KM 60, KM 94, SM937-26, KM 95, KM 95-3, KM 98-1, KM98-5, KM140 and KM98-7 had been released. KM 60 and KM 94 are basically Thai varieties (KM60 = Rayong 60 =MCol 1684 x Rayong 1 ; KM94= KU50= R1xR90 = MKUC28-77-3) , while the other seven are Vietnamese selections from sexual seed from either Thailand (KM 98-1 = Rayong 72 = Rayong 1 x Rayong 5) or Colombia. (SM937-26, KM95-3 = SM1157-3; KM98-7=SM17-17-12 or Vietnam (KM98-5 = Rayong 90 x KM98-1; KM140 = KM36 x KM98-1). All are crosses with Latin American germplasm introduced by CIAT.

A recent survey indicates that in 2007/08 about 420,000 ha, or 75% of the cassava area in Vietnam, were planted with these new varieties, principally KM 94. It was estimated by Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo, Reinhardt Howeler and Hernan Ceballos 2008, that the planting of these new varieties will increase farmer’s gross income by 3.00 – 9.00 millions dong per ha (meaning 6.00 millions dong per ha) as compared to the traditional varieties. In 420,000 ha this would correspond to an increased farm level income of 2,520 billion dong or 140 million US dollars per year.

Cassava Agronomy and Soil Management
Cassava agronomy research in collaboration with CIAT commenced in Hung Loc Center in 1989, and in Thai Nguyen University in 1990. This included research on agronomic practices, such as planting distance, weed control, date of planting and intercropping, but it focused mostly on soil fertility maintenance, by the use of chemical fertilizers and animal or green manures, and on erosion control. Long-term fertility trials using chemical fertilizers have now completed 19 years of continuous cropping at Hung Loc Center as well as at Thai Nguyen University. Both these experiments highlight the importance of annual applications of N and K, with much less need for P. In the 12th year, the annual application of well-balanced fertilizers increased the average yield of two varieties from 3.19 to 23.1 t/ha in Thai Nguyen Univ., and from 11.3 to 29.7 t/ha in Hung Loc Center. A long-term green manure experiment conducted at Hung Loc Center indicates that in the 10th year the alley cropping system with Leucaena leucocephala or Gliricidia sepium could nearly double yields, from 12.10 to 21.45 t/ha, as compared to the check plot without green manure.

Numerous erosion control experiments conducted in Hung Loc Center and at Thai Nguyen University indicate that soil erosion can be markedly reduced by the planting of contour hedgerows of Tephrosia candida, Paspalum atratum, vetiver grass or pineapple, as well as by contour ridging, intercropping, closer plant spacing and balanced fertilization. A combination of these practices will often reduce erosion to less than 10% of that obtained using the traditional farmer’s practice.

Farmer Participatory Research
In 1994 CIAT obtained funding from the Nippon Foundation in Japan for a new project that had as the main objective to increase the adoption of more sustainable cassava production practices in Vietnam, Thailand, China and Indonesia. This was to be achieved through the use of various farmer participatory research (FPR) and extension (FPE) methodologies. Vietnamese researchers, extensionists and key cassava farmers received training in this new approach (see below). During the first phase (1994-1998) the project was executed in collaboration with scientists of Thai Nguyen University (TNU) and the National Institute of Soils and Fertilizers (NISF), and focused on two sites in Pho Yen district of Thai Nguyen province, and in one site each in Thanh Ba district of Phu Tho and in Luong Son district of Hoa Binh province.

In the second phase (1999-2003) the project quickly expanded to a total of 25 sites in 15 districts of 11 provinces, in collaboration with VASI, Hue University, IAS and Nong Lam University (NLU), in addition to TNU and NISF. In all these sites farmers were encouraged to conduct simple experiments on their own fields with the help of researchers or local extensionists on such topics as new varieties, balanced fertilization, erosion control, intercropping, weed control, as well as pig feeding trials using both cassava roots and leaves. In 2002 a total of 169 such FPR trials were being conducted in 25 sites in 15 districts of 11 provinces. A survey in these sites in 2002 indicated that a total of nearly 5000 farmers had adopted some or all of the improved practices in 1,411 ha of their fields, resulting in an increased income of 4,116 mil. dong or US$ 274,400. Many more farmers outside the 25 sites also benefited from the project after learning about the new technologies from extension workers, neighboring farmers, farmer field days, newspaper articles, TV programs etc.

Training/Workshops
Vietnamese researchers, extension workers and farmers trained in cassava research, cultivation practices and FPR. Since 1989 a total of 231 Vietnamese received training through various CIAT projects. In addition, three Vietnamese participated in the Regional Cassava Workshop in Indonesia in 1990, four in India in 1993, 11 in China in 1996, 25 in HCM city in 2000 and 17 in Thailand in 2002.

Vietnam Cassava Research and Extension Network
In 1991 a Vietnam Cassava Research and Extension Network was established with participation of researchers from institutions working on cassava, as well as extensionist from provinces with large cassava growing areas. Workshops have been held annually in different parts of Vietnam since 1996, usually with participation of CIAT scientists, to review the results of the previous year and to plan new activities for the coming year. This network has greatly contributed to the rapid spread of new varieties and improved cultivation practices in Vietnam, and this has indirectly contributed to the change of cassava from a poor man’s food crop to an important industrial crop for production of animal feed, starch and starch derived products, as well as for export.

Recognition
On March 4, 1997, both Dr. Kawano and Dr. Howeler were presented with a medal in the name of the Government of Vietnam, by Mr. Nguyen Gioi, Vice-Minister of Agriculture, for their contributions to agriculture in Vietnam.

Key persons of VNCP – CIAT

Dr. Nguyen Van Bo This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Hernan Ceballos This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Rod Lefroy This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Kazuo Kawano This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Reinhardt Howeler This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Bui Chi Buu This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Tran Ngoc Ngoan This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Dr. Hoang Kim This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Visit http://cassavaviet.blogspot.com and http://cropsforbiofuel.blogspot.com for additional information about Cassava in Vietnam and Crops for biofuel and more.

Source: http://cassavaviet.blogspot.com/2010/01/cassava-in-vietnam-successful-story.html

FOOD CROPS. CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC 

Cassava breeding and varietal adoption in Vietnam

FOODCROPS: Cassava in Vietnam is among the four most important food crops. Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers. In 2008, cassava fresh root production in Vietnam was about 9.39 million tones, up from only 1.99 million tones in 2000 and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2008. Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new cultivar propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors, of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties more than 420,000 ha by 2007/08, (more than 500,000 ha by 2008/09, mainly KM94, KM140, KM98-5, KM98-1, SM937-26, KM98-7 varieties, and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. Cassava in Vietnam: a successful story

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Cassava breeding and varietal adoption in Vietnam

Hoang Kim (1), Nguyen Phuong, Tran Cong Khanh and Hernan Ceballos

ABSTRACT

In 2007, cassava production in Vietnam was about 8.90 million tonnes, up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansion, from 237,600 ha to 560,000 ha, and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 15.89 t/ha in 2007. Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new cultivar propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors, of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties in about 350,000 ha, mainly KM94 variety, and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. Since 2001-2007, a total of 24,073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37,210 seeds from 9-15 cross combinations made in Vietnam, 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand), and 31 local farmers’ varieties, have been planted. Of these, 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process, and one of the most promising, KM140, has recently been released in 2007.

Key words: Cassava breeding and varietal adoption in Vietnam

http://cayluongthuc.blogspot.com

FOOD CROPS. CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC

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